S.A. (abbreviation: Stuermabteilung)
The storm troops of the early Nazi party; organized in 1921.

Euphemism for the process of choosing victims for the gas chambers in the Nazi camps by separating them from those considered fit to work (see MENGELE, JOSEF).

Extermination camp in the Lublin district in Eastern Poland (see BELZEC; EXTERMINATION CAMP). Sobibor opened in May 1942 and closed one day after a rebellion of the Jewish prisoners on October 14, 1943. At least 250,000 Jews were killed there.

Groups of concentration camps prisoners which carried special duties in the camps like packing the belongings of the victims of the camps or burning their bodies after they were gased. Most sonderkommandos were killed in their turn and replaced by new prisoners.

Abbreviation usually written with two lightning symbols for Schutzstaffel (Defense Protective Units). Originally organized as Hitler's personal bodyguard, the SS was transformed into a giant organization by Heinrich Himmler. Although various SS units fought on the battlefield, the organization is best known for carrying out the destruction of European Jewry.

The steamship St. Louis was a refugee ship that left Hamburg in the spring of 1939, bound for Cuba. When the ship arrived, only 22 of the 1128 refugees were allowed to disembark. Initially no country, including the United States, was willing to accept the others. The ship finally returned to Europe where most of the refugees were finally granted entry into England, Holland, France and Belgium.

Name of a boat carrying 769 Jewish refugees which left Romania late in 1941. It was refused entry to Palestine or Turkey, and was tugged out to the Black Sea where it sank in February 1942, with the loss of all on board except one.

DER STURMER (The Attacker)
An anti-Semitic German weekly, founded and edited by Julius Streicher, which was published in Nuremberg between 1923 and 1945.